If you have been arrested what are your rights and what happens? UK police must follow strict rules if you are being arrested or getting questioned. Find out how you can get legal advice at a police station if you get charged with a crime.
BEING ARRESTED: As a rule the police will take you to a police station if you get arrested.
You will get held in custody inside a police cell and then you will get questioned by police officers.
Once they have finished their questioning you may either get released or charged with a crime.
If the police charge you, they will keep you in custody inside the prison cell. You will get searched. The police custody officer will keep your possessions while you remain in the cell.
At that time the custody officer at the police station must explain your rights. While you are in custody you have the right to:
Note: You can ask for a notice in your language or an interpreter to explain the notice.
If the person being arrested is under 18 or a vulnerable adult, the police must try to contact a parent, carer, or a guardian.
You should have an effective appropriate adult at the police station to help you. The 'appropriate adult' should be present and with you during all questioning and searching.
For young children and mentally vulnerable people an appropriate adult can be:
The National Appropriate Adult Network (NAAN) provides effective appropriate adult services in England and Wales.
During police questioning they may ask questions about the crime they suspect you committing. The police will record the entire questioning procedure.
Having been arrested your rights allow you to not answer the questions. But there could be consequences later if you do not answer the questions. The police must explain your rights further by reading you the police caution.
The Police Caution When Arresting
"You do not have to say anything. But, it may harm your defence if you do not mention when questioned something which you later rely on in court. Anything you do say may be given in evidence."
The police can keep you in custody you for up to 24 hours. After holding you for twenty four hours they have to release you or charge you with a crime. They can apply for an extension to hold you for up to 36 or 96 hours. This is more likely to happen if they suspect you of a doing a serious crime such as murder.
Note: UK police can hold you without charge for up to 14 days if they arrest you under the Terrorism Act.
You may get released on bail. That means the police let you leave custody because they do not have enough evidence to charge you. There is no payment required if you get released on police bail. But, you will need to return to the police station for further questioning when asked to do so.
You can also get released on conditional bail. That means the police have charged you and they think you are a risk for:
Getting released on bail means your freedom gets restricted in some way. A typical example could be having a curfew imposed on you if you committed your offence at night.
As a member of the public you have legal rights when you are being arrested. The police have rights too. Police forces in the United Kingdom have the right to take photographs of you if they arrest you.
The police can also take your fingerprints and a DNA sample without your permission. DNA samples can come from:
But, the police need your permission and the authority of a senior police officer for certain other samples. For example when taking samples of blood, urine, or dental impressions.
This rule does not apply if blood or urine samples get taken in connection with drug or drink driving offences.
Note: The police store information from fingerprints and samples in the Police National Computer database.
You can find out what information the police store on their database. Contact your local police station and ask them for a copy of your police records.
But you will need to write to your local police to get your personal information removed from the police database. The same rule applies in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland.
The police will only remove your personal details from the database if:
Members of the public have the right to free legal advice called 'legal aid' if you get questioned at a police station. You can still change your mind later on during the proceedings if you first turn it down.
The police must inform you about your right to free legal advice. It should happen after you have been arrested but before you get questioned at a police station. You can:
In some cases you may get free legal advice offered over the phone instead of employing a duty solicitor. This happens more often in cases for less serious offences, such as being disorderly. This free advice also operates independent of the police.
What happens once you ask for legal advice? As a rule, from moment forward the police cannot question you until you have it. But, there are some exceptions.
The police have authority to make you wait for legal advice in the most serious cases. But this can only happen if a senior officer agrees to it.
Even so, the longest they can force you to wait before getting legal advice is 36 hours after arriving at the police station. It can extend to 48 hours for incidents of suspected terrorism.
Note: Remember you have the right to free legal advice if you get questioned by the police.
Few people feel comfortable and relaxed when they deal with a police encounter. What should you do if you are unhappy with the way the police treated you? You should first contact the police force you want to complain about at their station.
UK police forces have a legal duty to refer certain types of complaints to the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC.)
Being Arrested Your Rights; UK Rules Updated 2017