This guide explains what type of driving licence you need when you tow a trailer with your car. As a rule, driving licence categories determine what type of trailer or caravan you can tow.
WHAT CAN YOU TOW? There are laws for towing caravans, trailers, and horseboxes with a vehicle.
That means you need to have the right driving licence to tow a trailer of any kind. Check the weight and size limit example below.
The year you pass your driving test determines the rules on what you can legally tow. It also gives you the limits you can tow without further testing.
MAM is one of the popular acronyms used for Maximum Authorised Mass. This does not mean the actual weight of your vehicle or your trailer.
The Maximum Authorised Mass refers to a highest weight rating and limit when loaded. This is also known as the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) or permissible maximum weight.
The best way to see what you can tow is to check your driving licence for the most relevant information.
An Example: The physical weight of your vehicle and trailer is less relevant when working out if you are towing legally. MAM ratings get used to calculate vehicle and trailer weight limits.
Your licence may allow you to tow a 3,500 kg combined weight. So, if your physical weight is only 3,000 kg, but the vehicle and trailer MAM rating is 4,000 kg, you are towing over the legal limit.
The rules differ for those who passed their car test before the 1st of January 1997.
Note: You can view your licence information on the government website for more details.
Drivers who passed the car driving test on or after the 1st of January 1997 can:
Note: You will need to pass the car and trailer driving test to tow anything heavier than 3,500 kg MAM.
What if you want to tow heavier vehicle and trailer combinations than your car driving licence allows?
Follow these 3 steps to tow heavier combinations:
Passing these tests means you can then drive a combined vehicle and trailer weight of 12,000 kg MAM.
Note: What if the main part of your job is driving a medium sized lorry? In this case you need to take the Driver Certificate of Professional Competence test (CPC).
You must check the maximum weight specifications your car can tow. They are usually listed in the user's handbook or you can check the manufacturer's website.
Some Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) plates may contain the "Gross Train Weight" (GTW). As a rule the VIN is inside the driver's door or under the car bonnet.
The rules do not allow towing with a car licence if the VIN plate does not show the GTW or GCW.
Note: Gross Train Weight (also called Gross Combination Weight) is the car MAM plus the trailer MAM. In simple terms, GTW is the maximum allowable weight of your car, fully loaded plus the maximum allowable weight of your trailer, fully loaded. You must not exceed either of these maximums.
An overall width of 2.55 meters is the maximum trailer width for any towing vehicle. If your vehicle MAM rating is 3,500 kg or less, the maximum length of the trailer must not exceed 7 meters. Note that the A-frame is not included in the overall length.
Note: Different rules apply if you tow a trailer using a larger vehicle, such as a motorhome.
You should always carry out safety checks before you tow a caravan, trailer, or horsebox. The towing equipment must:
You can get a fine up to £2,500 if your vehicle, caravan, or towing equipment are in a dangerous or unsafe condition. You could have your licence suspended, get 3 penalty points on your licence, or get banned from driving altogether.
When you buy a tow bar for your vehicle it must be 'type approved'. EU type-approval means it got designed for your car type and meets all European Union regulations for safety. The tow bar will have a type-approved label showing:
Note: Trailers with a MAM rating not exceeding 750 kg do not need to have brakes fitted.
All drivers who tow trailers or caravans must have an 'adequate view' of the road behind them. There is a confusing and technically exact definition of adequate view.
As a rule, a good approximation for a typical car-caravan combination is that you can see a zone at least 4-5 meters wider than the caravan at a distance of 10-20 meters behind the caravan.
You need to fit suitable towing mirrors if your caravan or trailer is wider than your vehicle. Different types of towing mirrors include those which:
Note: Towing without the correct type of mirrors can result in a fine up to £1,000 plus 3 penalty points on your driving licence.
Trailers with a MAM limit not exceeding 750 kg are not required to have brakes fitted. But, when it has brakes fitted, they must meet all current regulations. Trailers over 750 kg MAM rating must have a braking system which meets its weight regulations.
You also need secondary coupling or breakaway cable. The system engages the trailer's brakes (if fitted) or brings the trailer to a complete stop if it becomes detached from the car.
Your caravan or trailer must display the same vehicle registration plates as the vehicle you are towing it with. Towing more than one trailer means the rear number plate must get attached to the trailer furthest away from the vehicle.
Towing another vehicle with an A-frame or dolly means they then get classed as a trailer. All the requirements for that vehicle apply as per a standard trailer. The towing vehicle must be MAM rated to tow the other vehicle. As a rule, this means you use a big car to tow a small car.
You should only use a dolly to tow a broken down car to a repair station or for scrapping a vehicle. You cannot use it for recreational towing.
It is often recommended to use a front wheel driven car or 4x4 Sports Utility Vehicles to tow with a dolly. But, make sure you can disengage the 4-wheel drive function and do not use one with permanent 4 wheel lock. This could compromise the handling and safety while you tow.
UK towing laws allow vehicles weighing up to 3,500 kg to tow trailers up to 2.55 metres in width (8 feet 4 inches). If your American caravan, 5th wheeler, or trailer exceeds these dimensions, it cannot get used on the roads in the United Kingdom.
The biggest difference applies to the American electrical braking system. As a rule it does not meet all the required standards in Great Britain. Check the legalities for towing an American caravan or trailer before bringing or importing a vehicle into the United Kingdom.
Note: You may need to re-calculate weights from Pounds (lb) to Kilograms (Kg) on American specifications.
Towing with a Car Licence Regulations for MAM in the United Kingdom