Rendering first aid assistance at the scene of a road accident is a temporary procedure. Follow DRABC UK routine until professional Emergency Medical Service personnel arrive.
DRABC IN FIRST AID FOR EMERGENCY ROAD CASUALTIES: Being prepared means always carrying a first aid kit and getting trained in first aid emergency response skills.
Learning how to administer first aid from a qualified organisation could empower you to save someone's life.
The following information covers general assistance first aid rules which may be helpful as roadside emergency procedures.
The UK Highway Code has general guidance for administering first aid on the road. The primary car crash dangers to consider dealing with are likely to be the risk of further collisions and the potential for fire or explosions.
You should always approach the scene with due caution. Try to switch off vehicle engines, stop anyone from smoking, and warn other traffic of the accident.
First Aid 'DR ABC' driving theory is a memory word acronym. It is the 'ABC of first aid' used to guide laypersons through the correct emergency response procedures of a primary survey.
The definition of the letters DRABC stands for Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing, and Circulation.
D - Danger: Check that you and any bystanders are not in danger.
R - Response: Try to get a response from any casualties by asking questions and gently shaking their shoulders.
A - Airway: If the person is not talking, their airway may be blocked. Place one hand under the bony part of their chin. Lift the chin up and forward. If they are still having difficulty with breathing then gently tilt the head back.
B - Breathing: Evaluate whether the casualty has normal breathing. Check for normal breathing after opening the airway for no more than ten (10) seconds.
C - Compressions: Administer chest compressions if they have no signs of breathing and no signs of circulation (pulse). Place two hands in the center of the chest and press down hard and fast at a depth of 5–6 cm for adult victims. The rate of compression should be between 100 and 120 per minute (about 2 every second).
Determine whether the casualty could have a spinal injury. If so, do not move them unless absolutely necessary. If not, place them in the recovery position if they are unconscious and breathing. Stay with your patient and wait until medical help arrives.
Note: You may only need one hand for a child and should not press down as far. For infants, use two fingers in the middle of the chest when delivering compressions and do not press down too far.
First, check for anything that may be in the wound, such as glass. Taking care not to press on the object, build up padding on either side of the object. If there’s nothing embedded, apply firm pressure over the wound to stem the flow of blood.
As soon as practical, fasten a pad to the wound with a bandage or length of cloth. Use the cleanest material available. If a limb is bleeding but not broken, raise it above the level of the heart to reduce the flow of blood. Any restriction of blood circulation for more than a short time could cause long-term injuries.
Check the casualty for shock, and if possible, try to cool the burn for at least 10 minutes with plenty of clean, cold water or other non-toxic liquid. Do not try to remove anything that is sticking to the burn.
DR ABC First Aid Rules and Roadside Emergency Procedures for Laypersons