This general guidance and advice section covers the Highway Code rules 144 to 158. It explains how to drive with reasonable consideration for other road users.
Rule 144: Road users MUST NOT:
Rule 145: Motorists MUST NOT drive on or over a pavement, a footpath, or a bridleway. There are exceptions when gaining lawful access to property and in emergency situations.
Rule 146: You should also adapt the way you drive to the appropriate type and condition of road you are on. This includes, but not limited to, the following advice:
Rule 147: Be considerate and careful towards all types of traffic and while driving at vulnerable situations. This applies most around road users requiring extra care.
Common examples include children, pedestrians, cyclists, and where there may be animals in the road.
Rule 148: Safe driving and riding needs focus and concentration. Avoid the common distractions when driving or riding which include:
You MUST NOT smoke in public transport vehicles or in vehicles used for work purposes in certain prescribed circumstances. Separate regulations apply to England, Wales and Scotland.
In England and Wales, the driver MUST NOT smoke or allow anyone to smoke in an enclosed private vehicle carrying someone under 18, including motor caravans.
Rule 149: All motorists MUST exercise proper control of their vehicle at all times and MUST NOT use a hand-held mobile phone, or similar device, when driving or when supervising a learner driver.
Note: The exception could be to call 999 or 112 in a genuine emergency when it is unsafe or impractical to stop.
You should never use a hand-held microphone when driving. Using hands-free equipment is also likely to distract your attention from the road. Instead, consider finding a safe place to stop first. Or, use the voicemail facility and listen to messages later. It is far safer not to use any telephone while you are driving or riding.
The new rules allow you to park a vehicle using a hand-held remote control app or similar device. But, the app or the device MUST be legal, and using it should not put other road users or pedestrians in danger.
Rule 150: In-vehicle systems such as satellite navigation systems, congestion warning systems, PCs, multimedia, and others pose a danger of driver distraction. You MUST exercise proper control of your vehicle at all times.
You should not over rely on driver assistance systems (e.g. cruise control or lane departure warnings). These devices are available to assist you. But, they should not reduce your roadworthy awareness and concentration levels.
Find a safe place to stop to avoid getting distracted by maps or by screen-based information while driving. This includes satellite navigation or vehicle management systems.
The driver is responsible for the vehicle while using a driver assistance system (e.g. motorway assist). The same responsibility applies while using a hand-held remote control parking app or similar device. Thus, the driver of the vehicle MUST have full control over these systems at all times.
Rule 151: Do not block access to a side road. When you get involved in traffic which is slow-moving, you should:
Rule 152: Drive slow and careful on residential streets or streets where there are likely to be pedestrians, cyclists and parked cars. A maximum speed limit of 20 mph (32 km/h) may be in force in some residential areas. You should be alert and look out for:
Rule 153: Some roads have traffic-calming measures to slow the traffic. They use features such as road humps, chicanes, or a narrowing of the road.
As a rule, traffic-calming measures and chicanes will slow you down. Thus, reduce your speed when you approach these features. Always allow cyclists and motorcyclists enough room to pass through the road obstacles.
Maintain a reduced speed along the whole of the stretch of road within the calming measures. Give way to oncoming road users if directed to do so by the signage. You should not overtake other moving road users while in these controlled areas.
Rule 154: Take extra care on country roads. Reduce your speed at approaches to bends, junctions, and turnings. The bend can be sharper than it appears or side roads may be part hidden.
Be prepared to slow down for pedestrians, horse riders, cyclists, slow-moving farm vehicles, or mud on the road surface. Be sure you can stop within the distance you can see to be clear. Reduce your vehicle speed where country roads enter into villages.
Rule 155: As a rule, single-track roads are only wide enough for one vehicle to pass through. Even so, they may have special passing places. If you see a vehicle coming towards you, or the driver behind wants to overtake, pull into a passing place on your left. In some cases, you can wait opposite a passing place on your right hand side.
Give way to vehicles coming uphill whenever you can. If necessary, reverse until you reach a passing place to let the other vehicle pass. Slow down your speed when passing pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders.
Rule 156: You should avoid parking in areas where vehicles overtake. Do not park in passing places.
Rule 157: Some motorized vehicles need vehicle type approval for road use. As a rule, they are not intended, suitable, or legal for using on roads, pavements, footpaths, cycle paths or bridleways.
They include most types of miniature motorcycles (aka mini motos) and motorised scooters (aka go peds). These machines are powered by electric or internal combustion engines. These types of vehicles MUST NOT get used on the road, pavement, footpath or bridleway.
Rule 158: Certain models of motorcycles, motor tricycles and quadricycles, also called quad bikes, do not meet the legal standards for use on the roads. They are suitable only for off-road use.
Any vehicle that does not meet the required standards MUST NOT get used on roads in the United Kingdom. They MUST NOT get used on pavements, footpaths, cycle paths or bridleways either.
You MUST make sure that any motor vehicle used on the road meets the legal standards. It must be properly registered, taxed and insured before using it on the roads. Even so, certain vehicles MUST NOT get used on pavements even when they get registered, taxed, and insured.
General Advice on the Highway Code Rules in the United Kingdom