Simply put, a 'pool' is where you keep the writing down allowances of grouped assets. Doing so avoids having to record each item or asset as a separate entity.
The information in this help guide explains how to group items into pools and which rates to use when claiming writing down allowances.
You work out each allowance based on the total amount in the pool (not single values) if you are claiming writing down allowances.
Group the items into one of these three pools (whichever applies):
It is not uncommon for businesses to buy some kind of plant or specialist machinery. In most cases, this type of business asset can be claimed as capital allowances.
Thus, you should group (or add together) most types of plant and machinery into the main rate pool. The exception would be if they are:
You can only claim the lower rate of 6% (changed since the 1st of April 2019) for certain items. So, the special rate pool is for things like:
Note: As a rule, you would be claiming annual investment allowances on these items (except cars). Thus, the reason for claiming writing down allowances at 6% would be if you already claimed AIA on items worth a total over the AIA amount.
Typical examples of integral features that create part of a building structure include:
Note: The actual buildings or premises themselves do not qualify for business capital allowance reliefs.
As a rule, long life items would include those considered to have a 'useful life of at least twenty five (25) years' from new.
Generally, you should group items with a long life in the special rate pool. But, only if the value of all long-life items bought in a single accounting period adds up to at least £100,000.
If the total value is less than £100,000, you should place them in the main rate pool. The £100,000 limit can be adjusted for those with an accounting period that is 'more or less' than twelve (12) months.
Having an accounting period of nine (9) months would mean the limit is going to be 9/12 x £100,000 = £75,000.
In some cases, you may need to create one or more separate pools for single assets. Typical examples include those which:
In most cases, you get to determine whether you treat an item as a short life asset. But, you cannot include:
You should pool together large numbers of very similar items (e.g. crockery items in a restaurant). But, there are special rules for the disposal of assets (e.g. the pool ends when you sell it). In this case, you would claim capital allowances over a shorter period.
Note: Move the balance into the main pool in the next accounting period or tax year if the item is still getting used after eight (8) years.
As a limited company, you must inform HMRC on the tax return if you create a short life asset pool. The time limit for doing this is within two (2) years of the end of the tax year after buying the item.
A sole trader or partner must inform HM Revenue and Customs in writing. Be sure to include how much the item cost and the date that you acquired it.
There is a deadline for this method too. It is the online filing deadline for the tax year following the one when you bought the item.
Sole traders or partners should put any item used outside the business in a separate pool. You will need to work out capital allowances based on either the main rate at 18% or the special rate at 6%. It will depend on what the actual item is.
Of course you will need to reduce the amount of capital allowances you can claim. Use the same the amount that you use the asset for - outside the business.
Your business needs a laptop and you buy one that costs £400. Let's say you use the laptop outside of the business for half of the time. Thus, the capital allowances amount you can claim reduces by 50%.
In some cases, accounting periods will be more (or less) than a full twelve months. If so, you will need to adjust the amount of writing down allowances that you can claim.
Write down the item value as zero if you claim the full cost of it. This helps to show whether it will be subject to tax if you sell an asset.
What if no first year allowances or annual investment allowance (AIA) got claimed? In this case, add them on to the relevant pool in the following year.
Note: Once you know the rate for your items, you can start working out how much you can claim in allowances.
Capital Allowances Rates and Pools Guide for the United Kingdom