The UK Rules
Rates and Pools

Rates and Pools for Capital Allowances

A 'pool' is where you keep the writing down allowances of grouped assets (added together). That avoids having to record each item or asset as a separate entity.

WDA POOLS: You work out each allowance based on the total amount in the pool (not on the value of each asset).

This section explains WDA pools when claiming writing down allowances. You should group the items into pools depending on which specific rate they qualify for.

There are three different types of writing down allowance pool:

Main Rate Pool

It is not uncommon for businesses to buy some kind of plant or specialist machinery. In most cases, this type of business asset can be claimed as capital allowances. Thus, group (or add together) plant and machinery into the main rate pool. The exception would be if:

Special Rate Pool

Certain items only qualify for the lower rate of 8% and should get grouped in the special rate pool. Typical examples include:

Note: As a rule you would be claiming annual investment allowances on these items (except cars). Thus, the reason for claiming writing down allowances at 8% would be if you already claimed AIA on items worth a total over the AIA amount.

Integral Features: Parts of a Building

Integral features which create part of a building structure can include:

Note: The actual buildings themselves do not qualify for business capital allowance reliefs.

Items with a Long Life

As a rule, these items would include those considered to have a useful life of at least 25 years from new.

Generally, you should group items with a long life in the special rate pool. But, only if the value of all long-life items bought in a single accounting period adds up to £100,000 (or more). The accounting period is the tax year for a sole trader or partnership.

If the total value is less than £100,000 you should place them in the main rate pool. The £100,000 limit gets adjusted for those with an accounting period 'more or less' than 12 months.

An Example: Having an accounting period of 9 months means the limit would be 9/12 x £100,000 = £75,000.

Single Asset Pools

In some cases, you may need to create one or more separate pools for single assets. Typical examples include those which:

Short Life Assets

In most cases, you get to determine whether you treat an item as a short life asset. But, you cannot include:

You should pool together large numbers of very similar items (e.g. crockery items in a restaurant). But, there are special rules for the disposal of assets (e.g. the pool ends when you sell it). Thus, you claim capital allowances over a shorter period.

Note: Move the balance into the main pool in the next accounting period or tax year if the item is still getting used after 8 years.

Informing HM Revenue and Customs

As a limited company, you must inform HMRC on the tax return if you create a short life asset pool. The time limit for doing this is within two (2) years of the end of the tax year after buying the item.

A sole trader or partner must inform HM Revenue and Customs in writing. Be sure to include how much the item cost and the date that you acquired it. There is a deadline for this method too. It is the online filing deadline for the tax year following the one when you bought the item.

Things used Outside of the Business

Sole traders or partners should put any item used outside the business in a separate pool. You will need to work out capital allowances based on either the main rate at 18% or the special rate at 8%. It will depend on what the actual item is.

Of course you will need to reduce the amount of capital allowances you can claim. Use the same the amount that you use the asset for - outside the business.

An Example: Your business needs a laptop and you buy one that costs 400. Let's say you use the laptop outside the business for half of the time. Thus, the capital allowances amount you can claim gets reduced by 50%.

Accounting Period 'more or less' than 12 Months

In some cases, your accounting period may be more (or less) than 12 months. If so, you will need to adjust the amount of writing down allowances you can claim.

Already Claimed AIA or First Year Allowances

You should record items you already claimed annual investment allowance or first year allowances in the same pool they qualify for. Write down the item value as zero if you claim the full cost of it. This helps to show whether it will be subject to tax if you sell an asset.

Items Not Claimed For

What if no first year allowances or annual investment allowance (AIA) got claimed. In this case, add them on to the relevant pool in the following year.

Note: Once you know the rate for your items, you can start working out how much you can claim in allowances.

Capital Allowance Rates and Pools in the United Kingdom